Academic Calendar

Thesis/Practicum Types

A student/candidate may present a thesis/practicum in one of two acceptable formats:

  • Regular style
  • Manuscript/grouped manuscript style

The type of thesis/practicum must be approved by the advisory committee and comply with all regulations of the Faculty of Graduate Studies and any supplementary regulations of the department/unit.

Regular Style

Prefatory Pages

Title Page

The title page should contain the following information:

  • the title of the thesis/practicum
  • the name of the University
  • the degree for which the thesis/practicum is submitted
  • the name of the department/unit
  • the full name of the author
  • the copyright notation ©

The title must be a meaningful description of the content of the research. The author’s name should be in full, identical to the name under which they are registered and be consistent on all other documents. A sample title page can be found on this link.


The abstract is expected to provide a concise, accurate account of the thesis/practicum. Abstract maximum length is 350 words. An abstract should contain a statement of the problem, methods, results, and conclusions.


The content of this single page is left to the discretion of the author. For example, the page may make reference to the student/candidate’s advisor/co-advisor and advisory committee, to other individuals who have provided invaluable assistance to the development of the thesis/practicum, and to sources of financial assistance or other support.


A single page pertaining to a dedication is allowed.

Table of Contents

This must list and provide page references to all elements of the thesis/practicum. The numbering and formatting must be identical to the way the material appears in the text. Page numbers should be right justified. A sample table of contents can be found at this link.

List of Tables

This should immediately follow the Table of Contents and be of the same format. The list must include the number, name and page number of each table.

List of Figures

This should immediately follow the List of Tables and be of the same format as the Table of Contents. The list must include the number, name and page number of each figure.

List of Copyrighted Material

On occasion students/candidates include images, figures, photos and other materials from copyrighted sources. Written permission from the copyright holder is required. This should follow the List of Figures and follow the same format as the Table of Contents. For further information on copyright please refer to the following link.



The thesis/practicum should be written in a standard style manual that has been recommended by the department/unit. Manuals recommended by the Faculty of Graduate Studies include but are not limited to:

  • American Psychological Association, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
  • Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses and Dissertations
  • The Modern Language Association of America, MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
  • University of Chicago Press, The Chicago Manual of Style

Students should always use the latest edition available. If there is a conflict between the instructions in this guide and the style manual chosen, the former should be followed.


Canadian, British or American spelling is acceptable, but one style must be used consistently throughout the document.


One-and-a-half (1.5) space all text material; footnotes and long quotations may be single spaced. The entire thesis/practicum must be in the same text font, style, and size. Font size should be no less than 12pt Times Roman. Full justification of the text is not required. 


It is imperative that the specified margins be observed throughout the thesis/practicum. Leave at least a one inch (1.0”) margin from the top, bottom, left, and right hand edges of the paper. These margins apply to all material, including appendices, diagrams, maps, photographs, charts, tables, etc.

Page Numbers

Each page in the thesis/practicum must be numbered consecutively. Illustrative pages and appendices must also be numbered. Roman numerals should be used for the prefatory pages. The remaining pages of the thesis/practicum, beginning with the introduction (Chapter One) should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals.

Footnotes, References and Appendices

Instructions in the style manual recommended by the department/unit should be followed. Regardless of which style manual is used, format selected must be consistent throughout the document.

Figures, Illustrations, Photographs and Design Drawings

Illustrative Material

All illustrative material must be consistent throughout the thesis/practicum. All figures, illustrations, photographs and drawings must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and accompanied with a title. The material should appear as soon as possible after as it is mentioned in the text. All original materials should be of high quality, with sharp and clear images.

Layout of Tables and Figures

Each table and figure must have a number and title. The number and title should appear at the top or bottom of the table or figure as per style. The title of the table or figure should be as short as possible and indicate the major focus of the material within the table or figure.

Additional Materials

Consent and Access to Information Forms

Sample copies of consent forms that were used to obtain consent from participants to take part in the information gathering procedures for the thesis/practicum must be included in an Appendix. Any personal information including signatures must be omitted from the submitted form to meet F.I.P.P.A. regulations.

In some cases, approval from an agency, institution or corporation may have been required before the information gathering procedures could proceed. The original approval form for access should be retained by the student with a copy provided to the Faculty of Graduate Studies upon completion of the thesis/practicum.

Use of Copyrighted Material

If the thesis/practicum includes copyrighted material (images or more than a reasonable extract (according to the Copyright Act) of another person’s work), permission must be obtained from the copyright holder. A "Sample Permission Letter" is available on the Copyright Office website.

In some cases, copyright holders prefer to use their own permission forms and/or will provide their permission electronically. Both of these are acceptable by the Faculty of Graduate Studies.

Note that obtaining permission may take a considerable amount of time and this must be taken into consideration when meeting a thesis/practicum submission deadline. A reference to written permission having been obtained must be included under the image or text. The reference should also include the date the permission was granted, and the name/title of the copyright holder(s). The original form(s) signed by the copyright holders should be retained by the student with a copy provided to the Faculty of Graduate Studies at the completion of the thesis/practicum.

The thesis/practicum cannot be accepted by the Faculty of Graduate Studies if permission has not been obtained. It is important that the student and their advisor(s) ensure that the permission has been granted. In some cases, the copyright holder cannot be located or the cost is prohibitive to using the text or image. In these situations, the text or image may have to be omitted from the thesis/practicum.

Subsequently, information on where the reader can locate the image or text should be included, such as the URL, title of book/journal, volume and issue number, page number, publisher, and date of publication. A description of the purpose or significance of the text or image should be provided.

For further information on copyright please refer to the Copyright Office website.

Manuscript/Grouped Manuscript Style

A thesis/practicum may comprise a paper, or collection of papers, which are, or are about to be, published. The number of papers that comprise this style of thesis/practicum will be determined between the student and the advisory committee. The formatting of the thesis/practicum must be consistent throughout the thesis/practicum and the thesis/practicum cannot merely consist of several papers or articles bound within the one document.

Publication, or acceptance for publication, of research results prior to the presentation of the thesis/practicum does not supersede the evaluation of the work by the examination committee (i.e. does not guarantee that the thesis/practicum will be found acceptable). Examiners may specify revisions regardless of the publication status.

The thesis/practicum must follow the same prefatory information (1.1), spelling, formatting margin requirements, page numbering (1.2), footnotes and appendices (1.3), figures, illustrations photographs and drawings (1.4) and any additional material (1.5) as those outlined above.

There must be an introductory chapter to the entire thesis/practicum that includes its own bibliography. The collection of papers or articles must contribute toward the overall theme that represents the thesis/practicum work and must be smoothly integrated into the flow of the thesis/practicum to produce a unified document. This may require changes or additions to, and re-writing of, any work that has been previously published. 

The thesis/practicum must contain connecting text between the different chapters providing logical links to allow the integration of the information. These connecting sections are mandatory. Not including these sections may compromise the ability of the examiners to evaluate the thesis/practicum and accordingly, there may be subsequent consequences.

The thesis/practicum must contain a concluding chapter that includes a discussion on how the thesis/practicum, with its findings, provides a distinct contribution to knowledge in the research area.

In the case of multi-authored papers, the nature and extent of the student/candidate’s contribution, and those of the other authors, must be explicitly specified in a section entitled "Contributions of Authors" in the “Preface” of the thesis/practicum. The advisor/co-advisor, by signing the thesis/practicum submission form, attests to the accuracy of these statements and will be asked to reaffirm these statements at the oral defence in the case of a doctoral thesis.